Ungarnbericht des Europarates / Ungarn


The current measures for beneficiaries of international protection are ineffective in equipping them with the skills and support necessary for integration. Refugees face many  problems in practice, notably homelessness; sleeping in certain public places can now lead to criminal sanctions. Around 22 % of all asylum seekers are deprived of their  liberty, mostly in asylum detention facilities with very poor living conditions, harsh treatment by guards and lack of access to legal aid or assistance from civil society […].

In 2013, following a sudden and large influx of asylum seekers, Jobbik began to stoke  intolerance  towards  migrants; it announced a protest to demand the removal of the Debrecen reception centre  (see  also  the  section  on  Topics specific  to  Hungary,  Detention  of  asylum  seekers). Asylum  seekers then became the target of extremely xenophobic public discourse and social media invoked stereotypes of them bringing infectious diseases into the country, as well as being „lazy”, “uncivilised” and “criminals”.  In August 2014, a Jobbik member called for tougher policies towards refugees who put a great financial burden on the country, reduce public safety standards and cause health risks […].

However, beneficiaries of international protection must move out of reception centres within two months of obtaining international protection. While the move away from “camp-based” integration towards a community-based system has generally been welcomed, refugees face problems in practice. It takes several months before they start to receive financial support and this progressively decreases at the end of each six-month period down to 25% of the original amount. Most have no jobs when they leave the reception facilities and do not speak Hungarian […].

As a result, one of the most serious problems faced by refugees is the risk of homelessness. ECRI notes that recent amendments to the Fundamental Law authorise the criminalisation of sleeping in public places; Hungary adopted amendments to the Act on Misdemeanor in 2013 to this effect, despite strong criticism expressed by the UN Special Rapporteurs on extreme poverty and on adequate housing. The new legislation is particularly harsh for refugees, since their financial support is insufficient to rent an apartment and cover subsistence expenses. The UNHCR points out that some beneficiaries of international pro0tection have re-applied for asylum in Germany in order to avoid homelessness, and possible criminal sanctions, in Hungary.